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Python if, else, elif Conditional statements

In this tutorial, we’ll show you how to use the if, else, and elif conditional statements in Python.

Python if, else, elif Conditional statements

Conditional instructions are a fundamental programming element that you will need to know if you want to program software using Python or any other programming language.

Using conditional instructions, you can control the execution of the code. The terms of the statement must be assessed as true or false. Depending on the result, you can skip or execute certain blocks of code.

This tutorial will cover the many ways in which you can structure conditional statements. We will see how to write the statements if, if else, if elif and if elif else correctly. We will also touch on nesting statements if.

To build a good expression for a conditional statement, you’ll need to understand how to use Python operators. Therefore, I recommend that you take the time to learn about the different operators that you can use.

If you want a short way to write a conditional statement, I recommend you learn more about ternary operators or conditional expressions. However, I strongly recommend that you learn the basics first.

Python does not have built-in support for switch statements, so you must use if elif logic. However, in Python 3.10.0 and later, there is support for match and case statements, which are very similar to a switch.


If statement in Python

The most basic Python conditional statement is the if statement. By using if statement, you will be able to check to see if a condition is rated as true or false. If the condition is true, the indented code will run. Otherwise, it will pass over him.

As I mentioned earlier, the code block for a if the statement will need to be indented. You can use one or four spaces as long as the spacing is consistent for indentation. If you do not use the correct indentation, an error will occur.

Below is an example of how you can structure an if statement in Python.

Example of using the if statement

In our example below, we have a simple Python script that uses an if statement to check its value. X. Our if condition is that X must be equal 15. If the condition is assessed at True, the code block will run. Otherwise, it will not run.

Since x equal 15the block of code that contains our print function will run, resulting in the result below.

If else statement in Python

You can add a otherwise statement after an if statement if you want a certain block of code to run if condition our statement if is not fulfilled.

So if ours if the status of the statement assesses at fakethe otherwise the code block will be executed. However, if the condition is assessed at Truethe if the declaration code block will run ours as well otherwise the block will be omitted.

Example of using an if else statement

This example will demonstrate how a if anything statement works in Python.

Our if the instruction checks if its value X is equal to 15. If the condition is assessed to be Truewill run if instruction code block. Otherwise, it falls into the load otherwise code block.

Like ours X the value is not equal 15the condition will be false, so ours otherwise the code block will be executed instead. As you can see in our result below, otherwise rolled the instruction code block.

If elif statement in Python

If you prefer otherwise The statement has a condition, you can use a elif statement instead. The elif the statement is the same as a "otherwise if”Statement found in other programming languages.

a elif the statement will check its status when the previous one if the status of the statement is fake. You can have more elif statements after one if statement. Python will check each condition in order until a condition is returned True.

Example of using the if elif statement

In this example, we demonstrate how year elif the statement works.

At first, ours if the statement verifies whether X equal 15. If not, switch to elif condition. Our elif the condition will return True if X equal 12.

Since ours X the value does not match if condition but fulfills elif condition, the following were displayed when I ran the Python script.

If elif else statement in Python

You can use a combination of all three of the above examples. However, there are some conditions, such as a if the statement must always come first.

You can have many elif statements, but first elif must come after a if statement. Finally, an else statement must be the last one, because it will only run when other conditions are not met.

The example below demonstrates how to structure a if, elifand otherwise statement.

Example of using the if elif else statement

The code example below demonstrates how a combination of a if, elifand otherwise the statement will work.

Our first if the statement verifies whether X equal 15. If not, Python moves to elif statement.

The elif the statement verifies whether X equal 12. If not, the code will fall into our new otherwise statement.

Our X the value is 10so it doesn't fit the conditions of both of us if and elif statements. Since X does not fit under any conditions, otherwise the code block is executed. You should get the following result if you run the Python script above.

Nested if Python Statements

A nested if statement is as simple as placing one if statement inside another if statement. By doing this, you can create a complex logical flow for decision making.

It is a good practice to keep the nesting depth to a minimum, because the more levels you have, the harder the code can be.

The syntax example below demonstrates a nested if statement.

Example of using a nested if statement

Our code example below demonstrates a nested if statement. We use declare two variables, X and y with int values.

outer if the statement verifies whether X equal 10. If it happens, we print out our first line and then we get to the nested if statement.

Our nest if the statement checks to see if y is greater than 20. If it isn't, it moves in with us elif condition.

The elif check the status to see if y it's less than 20. If this condition is not met, it moves to our nested else code block, which prints a string.

The result below is the result of running the above Python script. Our X the value matches the exterior if statement, but ours y the value did not match the nested one if or elif state, therefore otherwise code block executed.


I hope this tutorial has taught you all the basics of using it if, otherwiseand elif instructions for controlling the execution of code in Python. Understanding the instructions if else is a fundamental part of programming, so I recommend practicing using them in a basic Python script.

We have several Python tutorials that I recommend you follow if you want to learn more. For example, our tutorials on Python while loops or Python for loops will be useful for controlling code execution.

Please let us know if you notice a mistake or if an important topic is missing from this guide.

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